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A quick review of matter…

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   Quarks are/is (?) (the, a?) fundamental particles of matter.

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   There are 6 flavors (or kinds). They don’t exist individually, but sort of come in “pairs” with charges on them. Each has less than an old-fashioned “+1″ charge like the protons carried and the “0″ charge the neutrons.

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   Think of protons and neutrons as “packages of 3 quarks.”

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[Want some more?  Use the DOOR.]

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   [MORE]

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      First, quarks have funny names. Please consider the source (scientists who have spent too much time indoors) and accept them…

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   (1)  “Up  (has +2/3 “charge”)

   (2)  “Down  (has -1/3 charge)

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   (3)  “Charm

   (4)  “Strange

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   (5)  “Top

   (6)  “Bottom

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   (Think of Charm and Top charged like up; think of strange and bottom charged as down. After doing that we’re going to ignore them in the rest of this post.)

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    Protons have three quarks–two up quarks and one down quark. For the up quarks, do the math:  +2/3  plus   +2/3  = +4/3.  For the down quark you have just one of those:  -1/3.  Now put them together.  +4/3 -1/3 =  +4/4  = +1

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   Therefore every proton still has  +1 charge.

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    Now neutrons (also) have three quarks–but only one up quark and two down quarks.  So, that’s  +2/3  -1/3 -1/3 = 0.

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   Therefore every neutron (still) has 0 (or “no”) charge, same as always.